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This affects the coulomb barrier involved in Alpha decay, and therefore changes the height and width of the barrier through which the alpha particle must tunnel.
The effect of this on alpha decay, which is the most common decay mode in radiometric dating, is utterly insignificant.
Careful astronomical observations show that the constants have not changed significantly in billions of years—spectral lines from distant galaxies would have shifted perceptibly if these constants had changed.
In some cases radioactive decay itself can be observed and measured in distant galaxies when a supernova explodes and ejects unstable nuclei.
Lava flows from active volcanos in Hawaii have given dates as old as 27 million years.
Radiometric dating is a method of determining the age of an artifact by assuming that on average decay rates have been constant (see below for the flaws in that assumption) and measuring the amount of radioactive decay that has occurred.
There is a fairly well-known example of chemical state affecting electron capture activity.
The Be nucleus (Beryllium-7) is an electron capturer with a half-life of about 53 days, turning into Lithium-7. While this half-life is way too short to be useful for radiometric dating, the effect of the chemical state is noticeable.
Another assumption is that the rate of decay is constant over long periods of time.
Radiometric dating requires that the decay rates of the isotopes involved be accurately known, and that there is confidence that these decay rates are constant. The physical constants (nucleon masses, fine structure constant) involved in radioactive decay are well characterized, and the processes are well understood.
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The reason is that, because the atomic number is only four, the 2s valence electrons are very close to the 1s electrons involved in capture.